investing

How to Quickly Calculate Market Cap to Find the Value of Any Business

Tucker Ammons

WealthFit Contributor

In 1954, Roger Bannister became the first person ever to run a mile under four minutes. This feat was previously thought to be unachievable. Bannister redefined what was possible, opening the door for other athletes to hit this mark. Since then, more than 1,400 athletes have broken four minutes in the mile. In business, the seemingly unacheivable feat was one trillion dollars in market capitalization — or market cap for short).

In August 2018, Apple (Nasdaq:AAPL) shocked the world by reaching a market cap of one trillion dollars on the stock market. Apple’s valuation surpassed the GDP of many countries including the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland. 

Like Roger Bannister and the 4-minute mile, Apple paved the way for other competitors to achieve this milestone.

In September 2018, Amazon (Nasdaq:AMZN) hit one trillion dollars in market cap. Microsoft (Nasdaq:MSFT) joined the trillion-dollar club in April 2019. Google (Nasdaq:GOOGL) became the fourth and most recent technology company to reach this unfathomable number in January 2020. 

In the world of buying and selling stocks, market cap is a frequently cited metric. Knowing what it is, how to calculate market cap, and why it’s important can help investors make better investment decisions.

What Is Market Cap?

Market capitalization is the total value of a firm’s outstanding equity shares based on current share prices and number of shares outstanding. 

Market cap, or the total value of a firm’s equity, represents the relative size of the company. Because it is the ‘market value’ of the firm, the value can change based on market sentiment. 

A company’s share price is the dollar amount that one share of stock can be bought or sold at. The share price is constantly changing based on the supply and demand of a company’s stock.

Shares outstanding refers to all public shares currently owned by stockholders, employees, and investors. Typically, these shares can be bought and sold in the form of stock on the stock market. Shares represent equity or a piece of ownership in the company.

Knowing how to calculate market cap — which we’ll explain next — is important for your investing strategy. 

How To Calculate Market Cap

The calculation for market cap is simple: the price per share X number of shares outstanding. 

For example, if a stock is trading at $20 per share and there are one million shares outstanding, then the market cap for that company is $20,000,000.

While share price is recognized as the main reason for changes in market cap, companies can also issue or sell additional shares. Companies issue shares to raise money from investors for additional capital. This money is then used for the development and growth of their businesses. 

While share price is a key driver, make sure to be on the lookout for share issuances when analyzing changes in market cap.

Market cap is very important in how investors categorize companies and forms the basis of major stock market indices. The S&P 500 index is made up of the largest 500 US companies by market cap. The FTSE 100 index includes the largest 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange by market cap.

A company’s most recent basic shares outstanding count can be found on the first page of its 10-K or 10-Q. The stock price can be found on any major financial news source. Financial news websites like Yahoo Finance, Google Finance, and Seeking Alpha will also include the market cap as part of a company’s stock ticker.

How Should Market Cap Influence Your Investing Strategy?

Investors differentiate between sizes of companies by putting them into categories based on total market cap. Companies can move in and out of various buckets depending on changes in market cap. The most common ranges are denoted as small-cap, medium-cap, and large-cap. 

Large-Cap Companies

This bucket consists of companies that have market caps between $10 billion and $200 billion. These companies are also known as blue-chip stocks and are some of the most famous companies in the world. 

If you want examples of large-cap companies, look no further than the Dow Jones stock market index which consists of 30 large-cap companies including:

  • American Express (NYSE:AXP)
  • McDonald’s (NYSE:MCD)
  • The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS)

Large-cap companies are considered large, stable companies likely to be around in the long-term. Most of these companies have a history of price appreciation and paying dividends. 

Many conservative investment strategies like value and income investing include large-cap stocks in their portfolios since they provide predictable returns and a steady stream of income.

Mid-Cap Companies

This bucket consists of companies that have market caps between $2 billion and $10 billion. Mid-cap companies are typically less stable than large-cap companies but have greater opportunities for growth.

Examples of mid-cap companies include: 

  • Dollar Tree (Nasdaq:DLTR)
  • NuSkin Enterprises (NYSE:NUS)
  • Snap Inc. (NYSE:SNAP)

Mid-cap companies are generally riskier than large-cap companies but have a more proven track record compared to small-cap companies. 

Mid-cap companies with a strong financial profile or opportunities for growth should be a part of any investor’s portfolio.

Small-Cap Companies

This bucket consists of companies that have market caps between $300 million and $2 billion. Many small-cap companies are younger and in the early stages of the business lifecycle. 

Examples of small-cap companies include:

  • Century Casinos (Nasdaq:CNTY)
  • Papa John’s International (Nasdaq:PZZA) 
  • Southwestern Energy Co (NYSE:SWN)

Small-cap companies tend to be riskier and have larger price fluctuations than large-cap and mid-cap companies. However, these smaller companies also can offer more growth potential. 

Many growth investing strategies include small-cap stocks in their portfolios. These strategies include more aggressive approaches, focusing on companies that offer the potential for rapid growth and huge upside potential.

The Importance of Diversification

There are no clear investment winners related to market cap. Small-cap, mid-cap, and large-cap stocks all have outperformed each other and the market. Large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap stocks perform better in different environments, too. 

That’s why it’s important for investors to diversify and maintain a mix of different sized companies in their portfolios.

The size of the company, whether small, medium, or large-cap, can serve as a good benchmark for shaping your investing strategy. Finding the right blend will help reduce investment risk and maximize portfolio returns.

Importance of Market Cap to Investors

Market cap is a widely used metric that reflects the expectations of investors about the firm’s future performance. Market cap can help to determine overall market sentiment and outlook for both the company and the broader industry. 

If the market cap of a company increases, this is most likely due an increase in share price. This increase in share price can be due to multiple factors, including:

  • solid earnings reports
  • unexpected positive events
  • operational improvements
  • or an overall strong economic outlook

If market cap decreases, this is most likely due to a decrease in share price. This decrease could be the result of:

  • company-specific issues
  • missed earnings guidance
  • underperformance versus its competitors
  • or a weak economic outlook

Word of Caution

It is important to note that market cap alone cannot determine whether buying a stock is a good or bad investment. 

Market cap measures the size of the company at a point in time. If the market cap increases, this doesn’t guarantee that a company is going to perform well in the future.

The stock market is highly efficient, meaning that public companies are generally priced at their expected value based on all public information provided. Investors can typically expect a market cap to reflect the intrinsic value of a company. The intrinsic value is the value that a rational investor with full knowledge about the stock’s characteristics would willingly pay.

Investors will buy stocks for which they think intrinsic values are greater than market values and sell stocks for which they think intrinsic values are less than market values. 

Being able to analyze changes in market cap is an important tool, but is only one factor in determining whether or not a stock is a good investment.

Importance of Market Cap To Public Companies

Market cap plays a very important role in the success of a public company. A company’s market cap can determine:

  • what stock exchange they’re on
  • the amount of capital they can spend
  • the types of investors they attract

Paying close attention to how a change in market cap affects a company can help an investor determine whether to buy or sell their stock.

Listing On Stock Exchanges

Companies that trade on major stock market exchanges like the NYSE and Nasdaq are in an exclusive league comprised of the most famous and influential companies in the world. Companies can only be on these listings if they meet multiple requirements including meeting a total market cap threshold.

To qualify for a NYSE listing, a company must have at least 1.1 million shares of publicly traded stock and a market cap of at least $40 million. 

To qualify for a Nasdaq listing, a company must at least 1.25 million shares of publicly traded stock and a market cap of at least $50 million.

Meeting these market cap requirements can provide more access to more accredited investors, improve a company’s reputation, and lead to a big increase in stock price.

Delisting from Nasdaq, the NYSE, or another exchange can occur when a company’s market cap falls below the exchange’s requirements. 

Although a company is not necessarily in bankruptcy when it is delisted, it has typically lost some of its financial strength, credibility, and/or stability. Delisting from an exchange can lose investors significant money.

Advantages Of Increasing Market Cap

To further explore the importance of market cap, let’s dive into the advantages companies experience when share price and market cap increases.

Increases Access To Capital

If a company wants to raise capital to grow their business, they can now do so by selling shares at a higher price to increase cash balance. This encourages companies to invest in new products or services, finance operations, make acquisitions, and expand into new markets.

Improves Balance Sheet And Pays Down Debt

A company with a higher market cap is usually more stable and secure than a smaller company, giving it access to more favorable financing terms. Higher market cap values also allow companies to pay down debt with cash received from selling shares at a higher price per share.

Unlocks Value For Stakeholders

Executives, employees, and other stakeholders benefit through option grants, employee stock ownership plans, retirement plans, and other means.

Attracts Accredited Investors

An increasing market cap generates interest and exposes a company to a large pool of investors. Larger market cap values can help cement a company’s reputation as a successful, valuable business.

At the end of the day, when a company wins, the investor wins. Understanding how market cap values can either benefit or harm a company’s investment value provides more insight into buying and selling stocks.

Market Cap Case Study: Tesla

From 2019 to 2020, Tesla (Nasdaq:TSLA) saw an explosive increase in market cap. In six months, from August 2019 to February 2020, Tesla’s market cap increased by more than 250%. 

Tesla became the first U.S. automaker to hit a $100 billion market cap. That’s now grown to more than $140 billion — almost twice the combined size of rival automakers General Motors ($48 billion) and Ford ($36 billion). Only Toyota has a higher market cap at this point.

Tesla’s vast increase in market cap is a result of an increase in global vehicle sales, the introduction of Tesla vehicles in China, the construction of two Gigafactories in China and Germany, and a stellar Q4 earnings report.

Tesla’s increase in market cap sent shockwaves through the stock market. Less than a year ago, Tesla was the most shorted stock on Wall Street, meaning that most investors were betting that the share price would fall. In 2019, Citron Research estimated that Tesla’s share price would fall to under $100 by year-end.

Since then, analyst firms like Wedbush Securities, Argus Research, and ARK Investment Management have increased future share price estimates to unprecedented numbers. ARK Investment Management believes the stock could hit up to $7,000 per share by 2024.

Tesla’s share price increase has unlocked value for investors. CEO Elon Musk is the company’s biggest shareholder and has become one of the richest people in the world in the past six months — Tesla’s share price gain pushed his net worth to $39.3 billion

What Has Tesla Done?

Tesla has been quick to take advantage of this market cap increase. In early February 2020, Tesla announced that it plans to offer $2 billion of common stock. Due to its higher market cap, Tesla can raise the money by selling less shares for the same cash value.

Tesla said it plans to use the proceeds “to further strengthen its balance sheet, as well as for general corporate purposes”.

CEO Elon Musk will buy as much as $10 million of stock in the offering emphasizing his confidence in the company. 

Overall, Tesla’s historic run has cemented it as a powerhouse in the auto industry and instilled confidence in investors, analysts, and stakeholders. Tesla is also taking advantage of the situation by unlocking further capital to invest in future growth.

How To Calculate Market Cap

Knowing how to calculate market cap and analyzing it — by itself — isn’t effective to make intelligent investments. 

However, understanding the size of the company in the context of an overall investment strategy is crucial in building a balanced stock portfolio to manage both risk and return.

Companies like Tesla will continue to innovate and shift how investors buy and sell stocks in the stock market. The “gold-standard” may be a one trillion-dollar market cap today, but as we’ve seen, it takes just one company to come in and redefine what is possible, benefiting companies and investors alike. 

Share

Written By

Tucker Ammons

Tucker Ammons is an investment banking analyst at Bourne Partners, a boutique investment bank in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Read more about Tucker

RELATED TRAINING

 in 

INVESTING

article
Everything You Need To Know About IPOs

Learn what an Initial Public Offering (IPO) is, how they work, where to find them, and when it’s a good idea to invest in one.

Everything You Need To Know About IPOs

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
How To Perform A Security Risk Analysis

Discover how to perform a security risk analysis. Learn step-by-step methods to analyze the systematic & unsystematic risk of any security.

How To Perform A Security Risk Analysis

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
Stock Sectors: The Secret To Balancing Risk & Return In The Stock Market

Learn how to use stock sectors to reduce risk, improve returns, and balance your stock portfolio.

Stock Sectors: The Secret To Balancing Risk & Return In The Stock Market

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
Stock Market Investing Strategies: Which One Is Right For You?

Learn the 3 questions to help you choose what stock market investing strategy is right for you.

Stock Market Investing Strategies: Which One Is Right For You?

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
How To Read a 10K Report & Start Picking Better Stocks

Learn to read and understand any company’s 10-K report to accurately gauge the company’s health and make an informed investment decision.

How To Read a 10K Report & Start Picking Better Stocks

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
How To Read a Stock in 60 Seconds

Do you wish you could pick up a stock sheet and understand all of it? It's not hard! Learn how to read stocks like a pro and speak the language of seasoned stock investors.

How To Read a Stock in 60 Seconds

Tucker Ammons

Read Now
article
How to Buy a House Without a Realtor

Follow this 8-step process to buy your dream home while avoiding paying hefty fees to a realtor. Also, learn how to find the right real estate attorney and the best inspectors.

How to Buy a House Without a Realtor

Abhi Golhar

Read Now
podcast
3 Ways to Profit from Airbnb

As more and more people jump into short-term rentals, Airbnb has become the place to be for many property owners. If you are adamant about getting into Airbnb, then maybe this episode could help you push that go button.

3 Ways to Profit from Airbnb

podcast
Chasing Money, Discovering Happiness & Tree-Hugging Real Estate

In this enlightening episode, Ryan Burk takes us through his journey to finding happiness, the fears he faced head in order to process pain, and the mindset he left behind when it came to chasing money. Tune in as Ryan embraces an alternative way to help those around him through real estate.

Chasing Money, Discovering Happiness & Tree-Hugging Real Estate

podcast
A Radio Ad, The Rehab & Purposefully Networking

In this episode, Amy Mahjoory takes us through her journey from leaving corporate America and investing in Fortune Builders, to building her real estate empire. Learn firsthand how you too can Network with a Purpose, build a strong team, and turn a part-time real estate gig into a million dollar business.

A Radio Ad, The Rehab & Purposefully Networking

podcast
Mobile Home Millions, Lifestyle Design & Taps

In this episode, Doug Ottersberg, business and life strategist and the co-author of The Serious Business Owner's Guide to Serious Business Success, sits down with Dustin Mathews to talk about financial success and shares his top tips for building wealth and breaking into the industry of mobile home investments.

Mobile Home Millions, Lifestyle Design & Taps

podcast
Rebounding From A Near Death Experience, Bankruptcy & The Crash

In this jam-packed episode, Dustin is joined by real estate investor and tech entrepreneur, Steve Jackson. Listen in and hear the "close calls" that finally led to the dream of having a portfolio of passive income-generating properties.

Rebounding From A Near Death Experience, Bankruptcy & The Crash

podcast
4 Interesting Takeaways from the Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting

Each year, the country’s top investing and money-minded individuals gather at the Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting. Get insight into this exclusive event with Dustin's major takeaways.

4 Interesting Takeaways from the Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting

Start Your Own Real Estate Investing Business

Start Your Own Real Estate Investing Business

How to Flip Houses & Buy Rental Properties for a Living

Than Merrill

Watch Now
Real Estate Fix & Flip Showcase

Real Estate Fix & Flip Showcase

Behind-the-Scenes on 13 Successful Rehab Projects

WealthFit Trainers

Watch Now
Creative Real Estate Investing Showcase

Creative Real Estate Investing Showcase

Behind-the-Scenes on 3 Unique Investment Deals

WealthFit Trainers

Watch Now
podcast
Profiting With Airbnb & Short-Term Rentals

How to start a short-term rental business. Learn how to find properties, legal frameworks, and project management tips to keep profits up.

Profiting With Airbnb & Short-Term Rentals

podcast
Secrets of a "Financial Concierge"

Anything can happen in the world of finance. Travis Jennings teaches you to use the tools at your disposal to make (and keep) your fortune.

Secrets of a "Financial Concierge"

article
What's the Difference Between Naked Options & Covered Options?

What are the differences between naked and covered options? If you're an investor, you need to know how to use either (or both) correctly.

What's the Difference Between Naked Options & Covered Options?

Justin McCormick

Read Now
Foreclosure Investing

Foreclosure Investing

4 Unique Ways To Profit From This Proven Investment Niche

Ammon Brimhall

Watch Now
Online Lead Generation

Online Lead Generation

How to Find Great Investment Properties On The Internet

Ralph Plumb

Watch Now
Real Estate Analytics

Real Estate Analytics

How to Hack Your Growth by Making Smart, Metrics-Driven Investments

JD Esajian

Watch Now
Unlocking the MLS

Unlocking the MLS

How to Pinpoint Your Next Great Investment Property on The Multiple Listing Service

Deslyn O’Dell

Watch Now
Part-Time Real Estate Investing

Part-Time Real Estate Investing

How To Get Started in Real Estate in Your Spare Time

Mary Anschutz

Watch Now